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At least two studies have suggested that spatial variation in health-related resources may have very different distributions in the United States than in other countries. Unfortunately, the study was not deed to identify the specific environmental features responsible for the observed effect. Increasing attention has focused counyry the implications for health behaviors and social interactions that are created by the built environment.
Social support has appeared in many but not all studies to buffer the effects of stress Cohen and Wills, ; Matthews and Gallo, ; Ozbay et al. Spatial Distribution of Environmental Country personals Research in the s demonstrated that people of low socioeconomic status were more likely to experience residential segregation in the United States than in some European countries Sellers, Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease Environmental factors that affect physical activity primarily through their effect on active life-styles, including walking and peraonals to healthy foods rather than calorie-dense foods may help explain differences in obesity and related conditions between the United States and other high-income countries.
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One recent review found that access to open space parks and other green spaces in neighborhoods was associated with physical activity levels in both the United States and Australia Pearce and Maddison, More recent evidence also suggests that residential segregation by income and neighborhood disadvantage has been increasing over time in the United States Reardon and Bischoff, Environments that discourage physical activity may also limit social interactions, with potential implications for violence and drug use.
The food intake of the U. There was also less variation in active travel among socioeconomic groups in Germany than in the United States Buehler et al. There is scant literature comparing social and physical environmental features across countries. country personals
Another notable example is the evidence linking lead exposures to pesronals development in children Bellinger, ; Levin et al. Many of the environmental factors relevant to health are directly amenable to policy. Residential segregation by income and race have also been linked to drug use Cooper et al. Other working conditions and work-related policies for U.
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A network of social relationships is an important country personals of support and appears to be an important influence on health behaviors. For example, the school environments persomals children, adolescents, and college students can affect diet, physical activity, and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs Katz, ; Wechsler and Nelson, Physical Exposures Few data are available to make cross-national comparisons of exposure to harmful physical or chemical environmental hazards.
For example, the density of alcohol retail outlets has been linked to alcohol-related health complications Campbell et al. This reinforcement creates a vicious cycle in which the environment contributes to the development of social norms such as reliance of automobile transportation and the behavior resulting from the norm reinforces the environmental features such as absence of bicycle lanes or public transportation that sustain pwrsonals.
Exposure to job strain exhibits a strong social gradient, which influences inequalities in the health of workers Countru, However, these conditions are important to health. Once established, the land use patterns and transportation systems are self-reinforcing and may in turn hinder the development of efficient and inexpensive public transportation alternatives.
Question 1. do environmental factors matter to health?
For example, aside from their direct links to injury mortality see Chapter 1violence and drug use may be indirect markers of social environmental features that affect other health outcomes. It is country personals to hypothesize that factors in the built environment related to low-density land development and high reliance on automobile transportation; environmental factors related to the wide availability, distribution, and marketing of unhealthy foods; and residential segregation by income and race with its social and economic correlates may be important contributors to the U.
This finding is in sharp contrast to studies of the United States, which have perspnals associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and the absence of resources that are important to public health Diez Roux country personals Mair, The evidence of environmental effects of air pollution and lead has been reflected in legislation in many countries directed at reducing levels of these pollutants in the environment.
However, the focus of that paper was on the social isolation of individuals rather than on social cohesion or social capital measured as a group-level construct. This figure is one of the lowest in the OECD a.
Another important environmental influence on homicide and suicide rates is the ease of access to firearms, which has a strong association with homicide rates Hepburn and Hemenway, In an interesting link between physical and social environments, Putnam has argued that increasing sprawl could contribute to declining social capital in the United Country personals because suburban commutes leave less time for social interactions.
Neighborhoods with residents who are mostly low-income or minorities may be less able to advocate for resources and services. Cities in the United States tend to be less compact and have fewer public transportation and nonmotorized travel options and longer commuting distances than cities in other high-income countries Richardson and Bae, Many European countries have strong antisprawl and pro-urban centralization policies that may contribute to environments that encourage walking and physical activity as part of daily life Richardson and Bae, Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods as a proxy for a range of environmental exposures has been linked to higher rates of injury in both adults and children Cubbin et al.
This chapter focuses on both the physical and social environment in the United States as potential contributors to its health disadvantage relative to other high-income countries. Levels of safety and violence may also be more strongly spatially segregated in the United States than in other countries, resulting in areas with greater exposure to violence and its harmful health consequences.
Levels country personals persona,s segregation shape environmental differences across neighborhoods Reardon and Bischoff, ; Subramanian et al.
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Inthe United States had motor vehicles per 1, people compared with in the United Kingdom, in Sweden, in France, and in Germany World Bank, b. For example, cross-national comparisons show that levels of active transportation, such as walking or cycling, can be effectively modified by specific land use and transportation policies Pucher country personals Dijkstra, ; Pucher et al.
There is, for example, little evidence that air pollution is a more severe problem in the United States than in other high-income countries Baldasano et al.